Vancouver citation format

Vancouver citation format is a commonly used citation style in the medical and scientific fields. It is important to properly cite sources in academic writing to give credit to the original creators of the information and to allow readers to locate the sources for themselves.

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In-text citations

When you use a quote or paraphrase from a source in your paper, you should include an in-text citation. The citation should include the author's last name and the year of publication, and it should be placed within the text of your paper. For example: (Smith 2020). If the source has two or more authors, include the first author's name followed by et al. (Jones et al. 2016). If you are citing a work with no author, use the title of the work in place of the author's name. For example: (“Title of Work“ 2020).

References or Bibliography

At the end of your paper, you should include a References or Bibliography page that provides full details about all the sources you have cited in your paper. The References or Bibliography page should be numbered in the order in which they are cited in the text. The formatting of the entries will depend on the type of source being cited.


The References or Bibliography entries should be formatted according to the specific type of source being cited. Some common source types and their formatting are as follows:

  • Books: Include the author's last name, first initial, title of the book, edition (if not the first), place of publication, publisher, and year of publication. For example: Smith J. The History of Time. 2nd ed. New York: Random House; 2020.
  • Journal articles: Include the author's last name, first initial, Anton continue where you left off title of the article, title of the journal, volume number, issue number, publication date, and page numbers. For example: Jones S, Smith J. The Impact of Social Media on Society. Journal of Communication. 2019;45(1):35-50.
  • Websites: Include the author's last name, first initial (if available), title of the webpage, name of the website, URL, and the date you accessed the webpage. For example: Smith J. The Benefits of Meditation. Healthline. Accessed December 20, 2020.


If you use a direct quote from a source, the quote should be placed in quotation marks and the page number should be included in the in-text citation. For example: “Meditation has been shown to reduce stress and improve overall well-being“ (Smith 2020, p. 15).

Multiple works by the same author

If you are citing multiple works by the same author that were published in the same year, use a lowercase letter to distinguish between them in the in-text citation and the reference list. For example: (Smith 2020a) and (Smith 2020b).

By following these guidelines, you can properly cite your sources using Vancouver citation format. It is important to be consistent and thorough in your citations to ensure the credibility and reliability of your work.